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Bogdan Gusev
Bogdan Gusev

Spiritual Intelligence

Spiritual intelligence is a term used by some philosophers, psychologists, and developmental theorists to indicate spiritual parallels with IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient).

Spiritual Intelligence

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In the same year, 1997, Ken O'Donnell, an Australian author and consultant living in Brazil, also introduced the term "spiritual intelligence" in his book Endoquality - the emotional and spiritual dimensions of the human being in organizations.[2]

In 2000, in the book, Spiritual Intelligence, author Steven Benedict outlined the concept as a perspective offering a way to bring together the spiritual and the material, that is ultimately concerned with the well-being of the universe and all who live there.[3]

Howard Gardner, the originator of the theory of multiple intelligences, chose not to include spiritual intelligence in his "intelligences" due to the challenge of codifying quantifiable scientific criteria.[4] Instead, Gardner suggested an "existential intelligence" as viable.[5] It's possible that Gardner drew inspiration for his theories from his multiple divorces starting in the early seventies. The contemporary researchers continue to explore the viability of Spiritual Intelligence (often abbreviated as "SQ" or "SI") and to create tools for measuring and developing it. So far, measurement of spiritual intelligence has tended to rely on self-assessment instruments, which can be susceptible to false or unreliable reporting.

A broad review of the research on SI has shown that 1. that several valid measurement instruments exist, 2. that they offer positive incremental predictive validity across a variety of desirable outcomes, and 3. that there is a neurological and biological basis for Spiritual Intelligence, highlighting the plausibility of its evolutionary adaptability,[8] all of which supports SI's validity as an intelligence.

Variations of spiritual intelligence are sometimes used in corporate settings as a means of motivating employees[9] and providing a non-religious, diversity-sensitive framework for addressing issues of values in the workplace.[10] According to Stephen Covey, "Spiritual intelligence is the central and most fundamental of all the intelligences, because it becomes the source of guidance for the others."[11]

Ken O'Donnell, advocates[14] the integration of spiritual intelligence (SQ) with both rational intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ). IQ helps us to interact with numbers, formulas and things, EQ helps us to interact with people and SQ helps us to maintain inner balance. To calculate one's level of SQ he suggests the following criteria:

Robert Emmons defines spiritual intelligence as "the adaptive use of spiritual information to facilitate everyday problem solving and goal attainment."[15] He originally proposed 5 components of spiritual intelligence:

Cindy Wigglesworth defines spiritual intelligence as "the ability to act with wisdom and compassion, while maintaining inner and outer peace, regardless of the circumstances."[17] She breaks down the competencies that comprise SQ into 21 skills, arranged into a four quadrant model similar to Daniel Goleman's widely used model of emotional intelligence or EQ. The four quadrants of spiritual intelligence are defined as:

David B. King has undertaken research on spiritual intelligence at Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. King defines spiritual intelligence as a set of adaptive mental capacities based on non-material and transcendent aspects of reality, specifically those that:

"...contribute to the awareness, integration, and adaptive application of the nonmaterial and transcendent aspects of one's existence, leading to such outcomes as deep existential reflection, enhancement of meaning, recognition of a transcendent self, and mastery of spiritual states."[19]

Also, Vineeth V. Kumar and Manju Mehta have also researched the concept extensively. Operationalizing the construct, they defined spiritual intelligence as "the capacity of an individual to possess a socially relevant purpose in life by understanding 'self' and having a high degree of conscience, compassion and commitment to human values."[20]

The Scale for Spiritual Intelligence (SSI; Kumar & Mehta, 2011) is a 20-item, self-report measure of spiritual intelligence in adolescents. The idea behind the development of this scale was to generate and assess the concept of spiritual intelligence in the collectivist culture bounded with eastern philosophy. The SSI is rated on a Likert scale and can be completed in 10 minutes.[27]

It has been argued that Spiritual Intelligence cannot be recognized as a form of intelligence. Howard Gardner chose not to include spiritual intelligence amongst his intelligences due to the challenge of codifying quantifiable scientific criteria.[4] Later, Gardner suggested an "existential intelligence" as viable, but argued that it was better to

Richard is a subject matter expert on consciousness and spiritual intelligence. He is a psychologist, author, speaker, trainer, and coach. He is the founder of the 3Q Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, and former National Chairman of the Transpersonal Psychology Section of the Australian Psychological Society. Drawing on decades of research, he is the author of a revolutionary new understanding that unites ancient wisdom with modern knowledge about psychology and spirituality within a single framework. His work offers a new understanding of the human operating system, and a new method of experiencing spiritual intelligence that works instantly, among other significant innovations. He has given presentations on spiritual intelligence at international conferences, like the Conference on Advanced Research in Education and the Global Conference on Education and Teaching.

Yes, spiritual intelligence can be accessed intuitively. In addition, there is a fast three-step method that activates spiritual intelligence, called the 3Q method, which takes only a second to use and works in any circumstances. The 3Q method is explained in this video.

Spiritual intelligence (SQ) improves the application of intellectual intelligence (IQ) in your work as a student by eliminating ego distractions and by magnifying your appreciation of the meaning and purpose of study.

For students therefore, spiritual intelligence has great benefits. As explained above, SQ improves the application of IQ and increases EQ. But more than that, spiritual intelligence contributes to psychological health, by unlocking a higher level of consciousness that unites all aspects of the personality and has access to deeper meaning and purpose. Thus the practice of spiritual intelligence is protective against mental and emotional problems.

Spiritual intelligence also teaches a positive use of adversity. We all need to learn and grow from mistakes, setbacks, and suffering. This is especially relevant earlier in life. So this is another benefit of spiritual intelligence that applies particularly to students.

Finally, spiritual intelligence uncovers a sense of vocation. A feeling of being called to serve others is especially important at a time when young people are choosing careers. This is a highly important benefit of spiritual intelligence for students because it will set the direction of their life from then on.

A New Paradigm of IntelligenceEven more fundamental than social capital, spiritual capital reflects what an individual or organization exists for, believes in, aspires to, and takes responsibility for. Based on this definition, it is a new paradigm that requires us to radically change our mindset about the philosophical foundations and practices of business, or any enterprise for that matter. I am not referring here to religion or spiritual practices. Rather, I mean the power an individual or organization can manifest based on their deepest meanings, values, and purposes.

SQ, or spiritual intelligence, underpins IQ and EQ. Spiritual intelligence is an ability to access higher meanings, values, abiding purposes, and unconscious aspects of the self and to embed these meanings, values, and purposes in living richer and more creative lives. Signs of high SQ include an ability to think out of the box, humility, and an access to energies that come from something beyond the ego, beyond just me and my day-to-day concerns.

Some researchers also describe psychological well-being as a cognitive process with life satisfaction as its indicator. A few researchers, in description of psychological intelligence, emphasize on the role of spiritual processes such as having a target in life to access optimum function. Finally, some other researchers, in this regard, point to personal and social processes such as having a self-focused attention, self-control, and meaningful relationships with others.[5]

Validity of spiritual intelligence questionnaire was confirmed through correlation of spiritual intelligence with test of religious orientation (P

With regard to the association between spiritual intelligence with psychological well-being, Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.48 (P = 0.001) indicating their association. With regard to the association of each component of spiritual intelligence with psychological well-being, Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.48 (P = 0.001) for conscious state expansion, 0.51 (P = 0.001) for personal meaning production, 0.38 (P = 0.03) for transcendental awareness, and 0.43 (P = 0.001) for critical existential thinking [Table 1]. Word intelligence is applied to subjective mental processes and/or a collection of intelligent behaviors. One of the basic indicators of intelligence is the ability to solve problems in a realistic and practical way.

The results of the present study concord with those of Naderi et al. investigating the association between spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence with life satisfaction of the elderly, which reported the association between spiritual intelligence with purpose in life, for which the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.53 (P = 0.001). For the component of conscious state expansion and its association with purpose in life, Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.38 (P = 0.001); for personal meaning production, it was 0.42 (0.001); and for transcendental awareness, it was 0.31 (P = 0.02); for critical existential thinking, it was 0.29 (P = 0.001) [Table 2]. The results of the present study showed that spiritual intelligence and its components are associated with psychological well-being and purpose in life so that an increase in spiritual growth can act as a base for a better and more coordinated life of individuals. 041b061a72


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